List of changes in the Philippine Insurance Code (PD612 viz RA 10607)

The Insurance Code during the Marcos period was promulgated under Presidential Decree 612. Presidential Decree 612 was amended by Presidential Decrees 1141, 1280, and 1455. The Insurance Code supposedly was revised under Presidential Decree 1460 (The attachment thereto [or the copy of the alleged revision] is not usually available online, if it exists). Presidential Decree 1460 was amended by Presidential Decree 1814 and Batas Pambansa 847 (Presidential Decree 1814 is one of the Presidential Decrees in question under the landmark case of Tanada v. Tuvera, GR L-63915, 24 April 1985 [Decision] and 29 December 1986 [Resolution], and it remains a question whether such laws and issuance were subsequently published, as government promulgations online are not consistent in the details as to where and when such laws have been published. Whether they were actually published would be a matter that would need verification).

Republic Act 10607 was promulgated on 15 August 2013 and was meant to revise the Insurance Code of the Philippines. It referred to a revision of Presidential Decree 612 and not 1460.

Reading the revisions made by Republic Act 10607, in one legal document, is convenient for many, while further piecemeal amendments thereto are not yet present. For someone who has read the Insurance Code or has studied it, the absence of indications of which parts have been amended or merely renumbered provides an additional task in determining the same. This is quite important as legal literature may have expounded matters relevant to the provisions, and the verification task is necessary so as to reuse prior literature for provisions which were not modified, else merely renumbered. Considering that the old law provides for 424 sections, and the new law provides 448 sections, the act of verification takes time.

To help reduce the redundancy of efforts to verify the same, here is a list to determine the changes, whether substantial or not.

By Chapter and title

  1. For Chapter I, Title 1: Section 3 was modified.
  2. For Chapter I, Title 2: Section 6 was modified.
  3. For Chapter I, Title 3: Sections 11 and 12 were modified.
  4. For Chapter I, Title 5: Section 45 was reverted to version prior to amendment by Batas Pambansa 874.
  5. For Chapter I, Title 6: Sections 50, 60, 64 and 65 were modified.
  6. For Chapter I, Title 8: Section 77 was modified. A new Section 78 was added. The old Sections 78 to 80 were renumbered as Sections 79 to 81. The old Sections 81 and 82 was modified and renumbered as Sections 82 and 83. A new Section 84 was added.
  7. For Chapter I, Title 9: The old Sections 83 to 87 were renumbered as Sections 85 to 89.
  8. For Chapter I, Title 10: The old Section 88 was modified and renumbered as Section 90. The old Sections 89 to 92 were renumbered as Sections 91 to 94.
  9. For Chapter I, Title 11: The old Section 93 was renumbered as Section 95.
  10. The old Section 94 was modified and renumbered as Section 96.

  11. For Chapter I, Title 12: The old Sections 95 to 98 were renumbered as Sections 97 to 100.
  12. For Chapter II, Title 1, Subtitle 1-A: The old Section 99 was modified and renumbered as Section 101.
  13. For Chapter II, Title 1, Subtitle 1-B: The old Sections 100 to 106 were renumbered as Sections 102 to 108.
  14. For Chapter II, Title 1, Subtitle 1-C: The old Sections 107 to 110 were renumbered as Sections 109 to 112.
  15. For Chapter II, Title 1, Subtitle 1-D: The old Sections 111 to 112 were renumbered as Sections 113 to 114.
  16. For Chapter II, Title 1, Subtitle 1-E: The old Sections 113 to 120 were renumbered as Sections 115 to 122.
  17. For Chapter II, Title 1, Subtitle 1-F: The old Sections 121 to 126 were renumbered as Sections 123 to 128.
  18. For Chapter II, Title 1, Subtitle 1-G: The old Sections 127 to 137 were renumbered as Sections 129 to 141.
  19. For Chapter II, Title 1, Subtitle 1-H: The old Sections 140 to 155 were renumbered as Sections 142 to 157.
  20. For Chapter II, Title 1, Subtitle 1-I: The old Sections 156 to 166 were renumbered as Sections 158 to 168.
  21. For Chapter II, Title 2: The old Sections 167 to 171 were renumbered as Sections 169 to 173. The old Section 172 was modified and renumbered as Section 174. The old Section 173 was renumbered as Section 175.
  22. For Chapter II, Title 3: The old Section 174 was modified and renumbered as Section 176.
  23. For Chapter II, Title 4: The old Sections 175 to 178 were renumbered as Sections 177 to 180.
  24. For Chapter II, Title 5: The old Sections 179 to 180 were modified and renumbered as Sections 181 to 182. The old Section 180-A (as inserted by Batas Pambansa 874) was renumbered as Section 183. The old Sections 181 to 183 were renumbered as Sections 184 to 186.
  25. Chapter II, Title 6 was added, along with new Sections 187 and 188.
  26. Chapter II-A was added, along with new Section 189.
  27. For Chapter III, Title 1: The old Section 184 was modified and renumbered as Section 190. The old Section 185 was replaced and renumbered as Section 191. The old Sections 186 to 188 were modified and renumbered as Section 192 to 194. The old Section 189 and 190 were renumbered as Sections 195 and 196. The old Sections 191 to 193 was modified and renumbered as Sections 197 to 199.
  28. For Chapter III, Title 2: The old Sections 194 and 195 were modified and renumbered as Sections 200 and 201.
  29. For Chapter III, Title 3: The old Section 196 was modified and renumbered as Section 202. The old Section 197 was renumbered as Section 203.
  30. For Chapter III, Title 4: The old Sections 198 to 206 were modified and renumbered as Sections 202 to 212. The old Section 207 was renumbered as Section 213. The old Section 208 was modified and renumbered as Section 215. The old Section 209 was renumbered as Section 216.
  31. For Chapter III, Title 5: The old Sections 210 to 213 were modified and renumbered as Sections 216 to 219. The old Section 214 was renumbered as Section 220.
  32. For Chapter III, Title 6: The old Section 215 was modified and renumbered as Section 221.
  33. For Chapter III, Title 7: The old Sections 216 to 218 were renumbered as Sections 222 to 224. The old Sections 219 to 221 were modified and renumbered as Sections 225 to 227. The old Section 222 was renumbered as Section 228.
  34. For Chapter III, Title 8: The old Section 223 was modified and renumbered as Section 229. The old Section 224 was renumbered as Section 230. The old Section 228 was modified and renumbered as Section 234.
  35. For Chapter III, Title 9: The old Sections 226 and 227 were renumbered as Sections 232 and 233. The old Section 228 was modified and renumbered as Section 234. The old Sections 229 and 230 were renumbered as Section 235 and 236. The old Section 231 was modified and renumbered as Section 237.
  36. For Chapter III, Title 10: The old Sections 232 to 237 were renumbered as Sections 238 to 243. The old Section 238 was modified and renumbered as Section 244. The old Sections 239 and 240 were renumbered as Section 245 and 246.
  37. For Chapter III, Title 11: The old Sections 241 to 243 were renumbered as Sections 247 to 249. The old Section 244 was modified and renumbered as Section 250. A new Section 251 was added.
  38. For Chapter III, Title 12: The old Sections 245 and 246 were renumbered as Sections 252 and 253.
  39. For Chapter III, Title 13: The old Section 247 was modified and renumbered as Section 254.
  40. For Chapter III, Title 14: The old Section 248 was modified and renumbered as Section 255.
  41. For Chapter III, Title 15: The old Section 249 was modified and renumbered as Section 256. The old Section 250 was repealed. The old Section 251 was modified and renumbered as Section 257.
  42. For Chapter III, Title 16: The old Sections 252 to 261 were renumbered as Sections 258 to 267.
  43. For Chapter III, Title 17: The old Section 262 was renumbered as Section 268. The old Sections 263 to 267 were modified and renumbered as Section 269 to 273. The old Section 268 was renumbered as Section 274. The old Sections 269 and 269-A were modified and renumbered as Section 275 and 276. The old Section 270 was renumbered as Section 277. The old Sections 271 and 272 were modified and renumbered as Section 278 and 279. A new Section 280 was added.
  44. For Chapter III, Title 18: The old Section 273 was renumbered as Section 281. The old Section 274 was modified and renumbered as Section 282. The old Section 275 was renumbered as Section 283. The old Sections 276 and 277 were modified and renumbered as Sections 284 and 285. The old Section 278 was renumbered as Section 286. The old Section 279 was modified and renumbered as Section 287.
  45. For Chapter III, Title 19: The old Sections 280 and 281 were modified and renumbered as Sections 288 and 289.
  46. For Chapter III, Title 20: The old Sections 282 to 284 were modified and renumbered as Sections 290 to 292. The old Sections 285 to 292 were renumbered as Sections 293 to 300. The old Sections 293 to 295 were modified and renumbered as Sections 301 to 303. The old Sections 296 and 297 were renumbered as Sections 304 and 305. The old Section 298 was modified and renumbered as Section 306.
  47. For Chapter IV, Title 1: The old Section 299 was modified and renumbered as Section 307. A new Section 308 was added. The old Section 300 was modified and renumbered as Section 309. The old Section 301 was renumbered as Section 310. The old Sections 302 and 303 were modified and renumbered as Sections 311 and 312. The old Sections 304 and 305 were renumbered as Sections 313 and 314. The old Section 306 was modified and renumbered as Section 315. The old Sections 307 and 308 were renumbered as Sections 316 and 317. The old Section 309 was modified and renumbered as Section 318.
  48. For Chapter IV, Title 2: The old Section 310 was renumbered as Section 319. The old Section 311 was modified and renumbered as Section 320. The old Section 312 was renumbered as Section 321.
  49. For Chapter IV, Title 3: The old Sections 313 and 314 were renumbered as Sections 322 and 323. The old Section 315 was modified and renumbered as Section 324. The old Section 316 was renumbered as Section 325. The old Section 317 was modified and renumbered as Section 326.
  50. For Chapter IV, Title 4: The old Sections 318 to 321 were renumbered as Sections 327 and 330. The old Section 322 was modified and renumbered as Section 331.
  51. For Chapter IV, Title 5: The old Sections 323 to 327 were renumbered as Sections 332 to 336. The old Section 328 was modified and renumbered as Section 337. The old Sections 329 to 334 were renumbered as Sections 338 to 343.
  52. For Chapter IV, Title 6: The old Sections 335 to 338 were modified and renumbered as Sections 344 to 347.
  53. For Chapter IV, Title 7: The old Sections 339 and 340 were renumbered as Sections 348 and 349. The old Section 341 was modified and renumbered as Section 350. The old Sections 342 to 350 were renumbered as Sections 351 to 359. The old Section 351 was modified and renumbered as Section 360. The old Sections 352 to 360 were renumbered as Sections 361 to 369. The old Section 361 was modified and renumbered as Section 370. The old Section 362 was renumbered as Section 371. The old Section 363 was modified and renumbered as Section 372.
  54. For Chapter IV, Title 8: The old Section 364 was modified and renumbered as Section 373. A new Section 374 was added.
  55. Chapter IV, Title 9 was added, along with new Sections 375 to 377.
  56. For Chapter V: The old Section 365 was modified and renumbered as Section 378. The old Section 366 was renumbered as Section 379. The old Section 367 was modified and renumbered as Section 380. The old Sections 368 to 372 were renumbered as Sections 381 to 385.
  57. For Chapter VI: The old Sections 373 to 382 were modified and renumbered as Sections 386 to 395. The old Sections 383 and 384 were renumbered as Sections 396 and 397. The old Section 385 was modified and renumbered as Section 398. The old Sections 386 and 387 were renumbered as Sections 399 and 400. The old Section 388 was modified and renumbered as Section 401. The old Section 389 was renumbered as Section 402.
  58. For Chapter VII, Title 1: The old Section 390 was renumbered as Section 403. The old Sections 391 to 392 were modified and renumbered as Sections 404 and 405. The old Sections 393 and 394 was renumbered as Sections 406 and 407. The old Sections 395 to 396 were modified and renumbered as Sections 408 and 409. The old Sections 397 to 407 was renumbered as Sections 410 to 420. The old Sections 408 and 409 were modified and renumbered as Sections 421 and 422. A new Section 423 was added.
  59. For Chapter VII, Title 2: The old Sections 410 to 412 were renumbered as Sections 424 to 426. The old Section 413 was modified and renumbered as Section 427. A new Section 428 was added.
  60. Chapter VIII was added, along with new Section 429.
  61. Chapter IX was added, along with new Sections 430 to 436.
  62. For Chapter X (Formerly Chapter VIII), Title 1: The old Sections 414 to 416 were modified and renumbered as Sections 437 to 439.
  63. For Chapter X (Formerly Chapter VIII), Title 2: The old Sections 417 to 418 were modified and renumbered as Sections 440 to 441.
  64. For Miscellaneous Provisions: The old Section 419 was modified and renumbered as Section 442. The old Sections 420 to 421 were renumbered as Sections 443 and 444. A new Section 445 was added. The old Sections 422 to 424 were modified and renumbered as Sections 446 to 448.

By Section references (Amendments and renumbering)

For the purpose of referring to prior literature, i.e. especially those subsequent to the last amendment on 12 June 1985 (as per BP 874), the following provisions were modified (as to their content, whether substantially or not):

Sections 3, 6, 11, 12, 45, 50, 60, 64, 65, 77, 81, 82, 88, 94, 99, 172, 174, 179, 180, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 208, 210, 211, 212, 213, 215, 219, 220, 221, 223, 228, 231, 238, 244, 247, 248, 249, 251, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 269, 269-A, 271, 272, 274, 276, 277, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 293, 294, 295, 298, 299, 300, 302, 303, 306, 309, 311, 315, 317, 322, 328, 335, 336, 337, 338, 341, 351, 361, 363, 364, 365, 367, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377, 378, 379, 380, 381, 382, 385, 388, 391, 392, 395, 396, 408, 409, 413, 414, 415 416, 417, 418, 419, 422, 423, and 424.

The current numbering of the old provisions are as follows:

  1. The numbering for (Sections 1 to 77) remained as is.
  2. With the introduction of a new Section 78, the numbers for former sections 78 to 82 were adjusted by 1 (Sections 79 to 83).
  3. With the introduction of a new Section 84, the numbers for former sections 83 to 180 were adjusted by 2 (Sections 85 to 182).
  4. With the number for former section 180-A adjusted as (Section 183), the numbers for former sections 181 to 183 were adjusted by 3 (Sections 184 to 186).
  5. With the introduction of new Sections 187 to 189, the numbers for former sections 184 to 244 were adjusted by 6 (Sections 190 to 250).
  6. With the introduction of a new Section 251, the numbers for former sections 245 to 249 were adjusted by 7 (Sections 252 to 256).
  7. With the repeal of the former Section 250, the numbers for former sections 251 to 269 were adjusted by 6 (Sections 257 to 275).
  8. With the number for former section 269-A adjusted as (Section 276), the numbers for former sections 270 to 272 were adjusted by 7 (Sections 277 to 279)
  9. With the introduction of a new Section 280, the numbers for former sections 273 to 299 were adjusted by 8 (Sections 281 to 307).
  10. With the introduction of a new Section 308, the numbers for former sections 300 to 364 were adjusted by 9 (Sections 309 to 373).
  11. With the introduction of new Sections 374 to 377, the numbers for former sections 365 to 409 were adjusted by 13 (Sections 378 to 422).
  12. With the introduction of a new Section 423, the numbers for former sections 410 to 413 were adjusted by 14 (Sections 424 to 427).
  13. With the introduction of new Sections 428 to 436, the numbers for former sections 414 to 421 were adjusted by 23 (Sections 437 to 444).
  14. With the introduction of a new Section 445, the numbers for former sections 422 to 424 were adjusted by 24 (Sections 446 to 448).

I hope this helps.

Electronic Evidence for Criminal Cases

Ang vs. Court of Appeals, GR 182835, 20 April 2010; Second Division, Abad [J], provided:

Besides, the rules he cites do not apply to the present criminal action. The Rules on Electronic Evidence applies only to civil actions, quasi-judicial proceedings, and administrative proceedings. [A.M. No. 01-7-01-SC, Rule 1, Section 2]

On the other hand, eight years prior to the Ang case, an En Banc Resolution of the Court of 24 September 2002 (AM 01-7-01-SC “RE Expansion of the Coverage of the Rules on Electronic Evidence”), was signed by then Chief Justice Hilario G. Davide Jr. (retired 20 December 2005); Associate Justices Josue Bellosillo (retired 13 November 2003), Reynato S. Puno (subsequently Chief Justice [8 December 2006], retired 17 May 2010), Jose C. Vitug (retired 15 July 2004), Artemio V. Panganiban (subsequently Chief Justice [20 December 2005], retired 7 December 2006), Leonardo A. Quisumbing (retired 6 November 2009), Consuelo Ynares-Santiago (retired 5 October 2009), Antonio T. Carpio, Ma. Alicia Austria-Martinez (resigned due to health reasons, 30 April 2009), Renato C. Corona (subsequently Chief Justice [17 May 2010], impeached 29 May 2012), Conchita C. Morales (retired 19 June 2011), and Romeo J. Callejo Sr. (retired 28 April 2007) Associate Justices Vicente V. Mendoza (retired 5 April 2003) and Angelina Sandoval-Gutierrez (retired 28 February 2008) took no part therein.

The En Banc Resolution of 24 September 2002 appears to have been published in Manila Bulletin, at page 4, on 27 September 2002.


This was previously discussed in a previous post entitled “Phantom Resolution.” Proof of publication of the 2002 resolution was not yet available at the time the previous post was published, and hence, the following portion in the previous article:

C. One possible option

Thus, it would appear that the only way that the matter may be resolved, whether the Resolution has been made applicable in 2002, would lie upon the availability of proof of publication in a newspaper of general circulation or the Official Gazette. Ultimately, is there a copy of a 2002 issue of the Philippine Star (since its applicability was reported therein), containing the Resolution itself that would resolve the matter altogether?

Proof of publication was submitted by one of my students (from current Batch 16) who is enrolled in the “Technology and the Law” subject (Saturday). It appears that a copy of published Resolution is available at the Manila Bulletin Library at Muralla corner Recolletos Streets, Intramuros, Manila, Philippines.

Students’ Take: Contacts viz RA 10173, Competing advertising in sponsored events, and Direction of Copyright Reform

For first semester of SY 2013-2014, my students in Technology and the Law are given the task of discussing (1) Contacts viz RA 10173 (6 July 2013); (2) Competing advertising in sponsored events (30 August 2013); (3) Direction of Copyright Reform (18 October 2013). These are their opinions on the subject matters:

No verifiable post(s): Cortes (1), Diaz (1), Nones (1); Non-compliant post as to provider: Delos Reyes (1); Withdrawn: Imperio

Batch 15′s contents are mirrored in AUSL Tech & Law blog.

Who do you think is persuasive? on point?

Note: External articles are properties of their respective authors. No endorsement on accuracy or correctness of said articles is being made here. No guarantee that external links will remain active.

Students’ Take: RA 10173 viz a National ID system, and Malacanang’s FAQ on the effects of RA 10372

For summer of SY 2012-2013, my students in Technology and the Law are given the task of discussing (1) RA 10173 viz a National ID system, and (2) Malacanang’s FAQ on the effects of RA 10372. These are their opinions on the subject matters:

(1) RA 10173 viz a National ID system (7 May 2013); (2) Malacanang’s FAQ on the effects of RA 10372 (21 May 2013);

Submitted, but no verifiable post(s): Gabronino (1,2); Withdrawn: Agnir, Alicayos

Batch 15′s contents will be mirrored in AUSL Tech & Law blog.

Who do you think is persuasive? on point?

Note: External articles are properties of their respective authors. No endorsement on accuracy or correctness of said articles is being made here. No guarantee that external links will remain active.

HB3841 and SB2842 #RepublicAct10372


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[ Download PDF of original article ]


Senate Bill 2842,[1] and its counterpart House Bill 3841,[2] were passed by Congress. It would appear that the consolidated bill [3] was transmitted to the President on 29 January 2013. [4] The consolidated bill has not been signed into law yet, as of writing, [5] [6] but sentiments against the legislation were made public on 14 February 2013,[7] and responded to by the Philippine Intellectual Property Office. [8]

Update: The consolidated bills were signed into law (Republic Act 10372) on 28 February 2013.


I. Development
II. Organizational matters: Sections 6, and 7; and proposed Section 9-A, RA 8792
    A. Warrantless Search
III. Definitions: Sections 171.3, and 171.9; and proposed Sections 171.12 and 171.13, RA 8792
    A. Communication to the public
    B. Reproduction
    C. Technology Measures, and Rights Management Information
IV. Assignment, Licensing, and Transfer: Sections 180, 181, and 183, RA 8792
    A. Statement of Accounts under the proposed Section 180.5
    B. Collecting Society accreditation
V. Limitations of copyright: Sections 184, 185, 188, and 190, RA 8792
    A. Limitation for the benefit of the blind, visually or reading-impaired persons
    B. Fair Use
    C. Reprographic reproduction of copies for libraries
    D. Removal of the allowance of limited importation under Section 190.1, RA 8293
    E. Rules relevant to importation and exportation
VI. Deposit: Section 191, RA 8792
VII. Term of Moral Rights: Section 198, RA 8792
VIII. Neighboring Rights: Sections 203, 204, 208, and 212, RA 8792
    A. Performers’ Rights
    B. Rights of Producers of Sound Recordings
C. Limitations on other rights (Section 212)
IX. Infringement and Institution of Actions: Sections 216, 217, 218, and 226; and the proposed Section 220A, RA 8792
    A. Technology Circumvention as Aggravating circumstance (Sections 216 and 217)
    B. Safe harbor (Sections 216 and 217, RA 8293; in relation to Sections 30 and 33, RA 8792)
    C. Disclosure of Information (Section 220A)
        1. Valid search and seizure; reasonable suspicion
        2. Public funds for public purpose, not for private gain
X. IP Policies for academic institutions: Proposed new Section 230
XI. Conclusion


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Article 133 Revised Penal Code #DAMASO


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I. Introduction
II. Article 133 as a crime against the Fundamental Laws of the State
III. Religious Freedom
    A. Provision(s) on the religious clauses
    B. Provision(s) on the Separation of Church and State
    C. Jurisprudence
IV. Discussion on Article 133 RPC
    A. Article 133, Act 3815 [1930]: Offending the religious feelings (Ofensa a los sentimientos religiosos)
    B. Is Article 133 RPC still operative?
        1. The end of theocracy at the advent of American colonization
        2. Origin of Article 133 RPC
            a. El Código Penal de 1870 (Spain)
            b. Penal Code of 1884 (Philippine Islands)
        3. Articles 233 and 571 of the Penal Code of 1884 in relation to the 1930 Revised Penal Code
        4. Reenactment of previously inoperative provisions of the Penal Code of 1884, through Articles 131 and 132 RPC
    C. Should “Crimes against religious worship” even be in Philippine penal statutes?
    D. Could Freedom of Speech be claimed as a defense for violation of a subsisting penal provision?
    E. Has Article 133 been challenged for its constitutionality?
    F. Are the elements of Article 133, without doubt, present?
        1. Elements of Article 133 RPC
            a. Acts complained of were performed in a place devoted to religious worship or during the celebration of any religious ceremony
                i. Place devoted to religious worship
                ii. During the celebration of any religious ceremony
                iii. Alternative scenarios in the clauses of the first element
            b. Act was notoriously offensive to the religious feelings of the faithful
                i. Notoriously offensive
                ii. Religious feelings of the faithful
    G. Act punishable under Article 133 RPC or under some other RPC provision?
        1. Acts not within purview of Article 133 RPC
        2. Was the act really punishable under Article 133 RPC?
V. Miscellaneous Issues
    A. Priests and Article 133 RPC
    B. Church interference on political matters
    C. Personal matters


I. Introduction

I cannot speak for or against the decision of the Metropolitan Trial Court of Manila [1] relating to the case of Carlos Celdran, who was found guilty of offending religious feeling under Article 133 of the Revised Penal Code (RPC), or Act 3815 [1930], on 28 January 2013, as it is an ongoing case. [2] [3] I can only look into legal precepts which may be relevant in appreciating the controversy. [4], and maybe stray once in a while on political matters incidental to the controversy.

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2013 Tubbataha mishap


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I. Background
II. Considerations
    A. Innocent Passage, and Sea Lanes
    B. Visiting Forces Agreement
III. Senate Bill 2738
IV. Proper Penalties, including Fine, and Compensation for Damages
V. Demand for US accountability


I. Background

The Tubbataha Reef Marine Park, located in the Philippines, is a UNESCO heritage site, as listed since 1993. [1] The park is protected under Philippine law, through Republic Act 10067. [2]

On 17 January 2013, the USS Guardian, a minesweeper belonging to the United States Navy (US Navy), after refueling at Subic in the Philippines, ran aground at the Tubbataha Reef Marine Park. [3] The ship ran aground after the ship captain allegedly ignored warnings from the Tubbataha Management Office (TMO), the body administering the park. [4] [5] It is also alleged that “[t]he ship’s commander ordered a general alert and deployed personnel into battle position when [Philippine TMO] rangers tried to approach their ship to assess the situation, forcing them to back off.” [6] The US Navy [7], and subsequently the US Embassy in the Philippines [8], have issued apologies, limited to the grounding of the USS Guardian and the resultant damage to the corals. The Philippine president, Benigno Aquino III, allegedly have said that the US apology is insufficient [9], while a Philippine legislator allegedly requested the Philippine government to request official apology from US President Obama himself and to pursue demands for higher compensation for the damage. [10]

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